Manual of Remote Sensing 4th Edition

ASPRS is undertaking the 4th edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing. MRS-4 is being developed as an enhanced e-Manual, generated by numerous national and international professionals at essentially all career levels, and managed by Chapter author/editors (A/Es) who are leading efforts to develop Chapter outlines, manage their content proactively, and by soliciting contributed material from subject-matter experts. The overarching concept is that after its release as an eManual, MRS-4 should be a “living” edition that evolves through a versioning process that subsequent contributors can quickly update and modernize. Dr Marguerite Madden ( and Dr. Sergio Bernardes ( are co-editing the manual’s image processing chapter.

Chapter 7: Image Processing and Analysis Methods

This is a comprehensive chapter, including modelling strategies; feature extraction; data assimilation and fusing; geographic, object-based, image analysis (GEOBIA); accuracy assessment; TransCube modeling; ESMF concept, function and status; and more.

A list of identified sections is presented below. Individuals are invited to contact Chapter A/Es to suggest additional topics they deem are missing from Chapter outline:

Geometric Correction
Radiometric Correction
Radiometric normalization/equalization
Atmospheric Correction
Dark Object Subtraction
MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC)
5S, 6S
Cloud masking and removal
Aerosol retrieval algorithms (SARA, MODIS DT)
Image Enhancement – Filtering
Geometry/Surface corrections/Artifact correction
surface glint
topographic corrections
Image Quality Assessment & Gap FillingSergio Bernardes
Multitemporal gap fillingSergio Bernardes
Spatial gap fillingSergio Bernardes
Image Mosaicking
Developments on mosaicking images acquired by UAS
Spectral Mixing Analysis
Image Data Fusion, Transformation and Reduction
Principal Components Analysis
Minimum/Maximum Autocorrelation Factors
Maximum Noise Fraction
Tasseled Cap Transormation
Intensity – Hue Saturation
Fourier Transformation
Thematic Classification
Unsupervised (e.g., ISODATA)
Minimum Distance
Maximum Likelihood
K-Nearest Neighors
Fuzzy clustering
Fuzzy c-means
Fuzzy Maximum Likelihood
Fuzzy Rule Based Classification
Artificial Neural Network Analysis
Support Vector Machine
Expert Systems, Decision-tree Classifiers, Machine Learning
Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART)
Object-based Image Analysis, Feature ExtractionPeng Gong
Image segmentationPeng Gong
Classification accuracy assessment
Texture (spatial) Analysis
Spectral Angle Mapping
Speckle reduction (Filtering)
temperature estimation algorithms
Change Detection and Time Series Analysis
Spectral Change Vector Analysis
Post-classification Change Detection
Time Series Analysis
Spectral Indices
Image autocorrelation
Multiplicative Autoregressive Random Fields
ModelingJohn Shi
Ecological Niche Modeling
Models & Types of Models (ESMF)
Primary Productivity (biophysical : fAPAR, LAI, GPP) PROSAIL, SAIL
Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models
radiative transfer models (DART, HYDROLIGHT)
Coastal water algorithms (chlorophyll)
TransCube Modeling
Visual Interpretation and AnalysisMarguerite Madden
Structure from Motion and 3D Reconstruction
Future DevelopmentsMadden and Bernardes
ReferencesMadden and Bernardes

Brief History of the Manual of Remote Sensing

The 1st edition of the MRS was published in 1975 in 2 volumes: Vol. 1 on Theory, Instruments and Techniques was 867 pages; Vol. 2 on Interpretation and Applications was 2144 pages, including imagery and data from Skylab and ERTS (Landsat-1) technology developments. The 2nd edition was published in 1983 also in two volumes totaling 2440 pages: Vol. 1 on Theory, Instruments and Techniques and Vol. 2 on Interpretation and Applications. The 3rd edition (MRS-3) was conceived as a “boxed set” to be issued as topic-specific volumes. Six hardcopy volumes were produced between 1998 and 2009 (3 under the imprimatur of Wiley and 3 under the imprimatur of ASPRS). During that decade+, immense changes occurred in publishing that virtually obviate further hardcopy releases.

Resources for contributors